Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Pain Management and Post Operative Care Case Studies

Pain Management and Post Operative Care Case Studies This is a scenario based essay in which two scenarios will be looked at. One is on osteoarthritis and osteoporosis patient and the other one is based on oesophageal reflux disorder and peptic ulcer disease. The clinical manifestations of these two health problems and post-operative care of patients with these issues will be discussed in this paper. Complications of gastric diseases here in will also be discussed Osteoporosis also known as porous bone or fragile bone is a chronic form of metabolic bone disease characterized by a significant weakening in the structure of bone tissue and a low bone density (Brown and Edwards, 2012).This occurs when there is an imbalance between the bone formation and bone resorption. Under normal circumstances, osteoblasts constantly deposit bones which are resorbed by osteoclasts. This process is termed remodelling. In this case, the rate of deposition equals that of resorption such that for the total bone mass remains constant .However in osteoporosis, the bone resorption exceeds bone formation which leads to thin, fragile bones that are subject to spontaneous pathological fracture ( Craft et al,2011 ).Osteoporosis has some risk factors which are classified as modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Some of the modifiable risk factors include; low birth weight, cigarette smoking,malnutrition,low calcium intake, deficiency of vitamin D, deficit of oestroge n or androgen ,poor physical activity, some medications like steroids, anticonvulsants , vitamin A, and chronic conditions like thyroid, liver diseases as well as diabetes while the non-modifiable ones are race,sex,advanced aged,genetics,dementia, previous fractures as an adult(Kenny and Karen,2013).Osteoporosis is often regarded as a silent disease. This is because during the early stage, the bone loss is usually asymptomatic. At this point, Claire may not realise that she has osteoporosis but as the disease progresses, her bones become weaker such that even a slight or sudden bump or fall results to a fracture of either the hip, vertebral or wrist.However,Acute back pain is one of the earliest clinical manifestations Claire will be experiencing. This occurs due to vertebral compression fracture. Groin or thigh pain may also occur due to hip fracture (Brown and Edwards, 2012). Osteoarthritis on the other hand develops when the articular cartilage that protects the ends of bones in a joint begins to disintegrate. This disorder is more prevalent among the elderly and regarded as part of their aging process. Any localized wear and tear may hasten the situation and its symptom may be confined only in one joint. Early in the disease, the cartilage starts to break becoming roughened and thinner thereby interfering with easy movement.Cytokines which stimulate the release and production of an enzymes called protease are released( LeMone et al,2011)). This enzyme causes increase in the disintegration of the cartilage. To this end, the subchondral bone becomes damaged and exposed while cysts and osteophytes spurs developed around the margin of the bone. Osteophytes piece and cartilage starts to break off into the synovial cavity which further causes irritation and makes the joint space narrower. This exposes the bony surfaces hence they, rub against each other causi ng pain thus making the affected joint to become inflamed frequently (LeMone et al, 2011). Osteoarthritis has many clinical manifestations occurring due to body’s response to this degenerative change which ranges from mild discomfort to major disability. ( Brown and Edwards, 2012).some clinical manifestations Claire may experience may include joint pain.and swelling. It occurs due to weight bearing and movement. The pain may be unilateral and eventually becomes more severe as the degenerative changes progresses (Brown and Edwards, 2012 ).During the initial stage, this pain can be relieved by rest but as the disease advances, the pain may occur even at rest and Claire’s sleeping pattern may be interrupted as a result of joint discomfort. This joint discomfort may become more severe following a change in weather condition (Brown and Edwards, 2012).There will be limited joint movement due to loss of cartilage which is irregular and worn and osteophytes developed. Also crepitus may be heard as the joints become irregular, rubbing against each other.Towards the en d or middle joint of fingers, Claire may develop bony lumps known as herberden and bouchard nodes leading to structural deformity. (Brown and Edwards, 2012). Following Claire’s fracture repair, her post-operative nursing care and management are directed towards promoting safety, monitoring vital signs and applying the general principles of post–operative nursing care. The nurse will ensure that all the necessary safety equipment’s are near the patient’s bed side and in good working condition in case of emergency. Assess patient’s airway, circulation and breathing sounds for patency and check vital signs and pulse oximetry for baseline (Perry et al, 2012). Determine patient’s pain level using the pain rating. This will reveal the nature of pain and as well direct the nurse towards suitable interventions. Assessment of Claire’s neurological status is also of paramount important to ascertain the level of consciousness and movement of extremities (Perry et al, 2012). Observe IV access for patency and signs of infection, noting the rate to avoid insufficiency and overload. Check catheter drainag e for patency, colour, amount, ensuring frequent emptying and proper documentation in the intake and output chart (Perry et al, 2012). Also neurovascular assessments of the affected extremity are very important in order to detect changes while movement restraints or activities related to the turning, positioning and extremity support should be monitored closely and proper alignment and positioning to minimize discomfort and pain should be encouraged. Also, cast or dressings should be observed closely for signs of bleeding or drainage. It is pertinent to note that, any significant increase in the size of the drainage should be reported and documented (Perry et al, 2012). It is expected that Claire’s mobility will be impaired following surgery. Therefore, frequent assessment of common complications of immobility like pressure sore formation, renal calculi, deep vein thrombosis, pneumonia, paralytic ileus and pulmonary embolism are necessary and appropriate measures taken to alleviate it must be taken. Some of these measures include two hourly change of patient’s position according to hospital policy .This can be done by assisting in repositioning while stabilizing the fracture site (Lewis et at,2006).Other measures can be deep breathing and coughing exercise, active range of motion exercise, providing TED socks as well as early ambulation. Immobilization of the elbow to prevent wrist supination and pronation is necessary while the nursing management should include steps to prevent or reduce oedema and regular neurovascular assessment. Extremity should be supported and protected along with active movement of the fingers and thumb. This ex ercise helps reduce oedema, avert stiffness and increase venous return (Lewis et al, 2006). Active movement of the shoulder to prevent stiffness or contraction should be frequently performed by patient and must be encouraged. Deep venous thrombosis and subsequent pulmonary embolism which may occur due to venous pooling can be alleviated by using techniques to promote lower limb blood flow. Electrical stimulation induced contractions have been shown to improve skeletal muscle movements preventing venous stasis and oedema (Broderick, 2010). Regularly assessing the pin insertion sites and providing pin site care as per hospital policy is highly important and any signs of infection like redness, purulent drainage and increases tenderness must be reported and documented ( LeMone et al,2011). Prescribed medications such as antibiotics and analgesics per physicians order must also be administered and charted. The patients may also require assistance with ADLs especially where the stronger hand is the one affected (Farrell Dempsey, 2011). Following Claire’s complain of pain, it is important to assess patient’s level of comfort and the character of her pain. This can be done by asking her about the precipitating factor, quality, radiation ,severity and timing and also asking patient to rate the pain level using a scale of 1 to 10.All this measures will assist to determine the type and level of pain the patient is experiencing and to decide the type and dose of prescribed analgesic that will best suit patients pain where there is a choice .It can also help to decide whether her pain can be managed with non- pharmacological measures like arm elevation, ice application or even finger exercises (Perry et al, 2012 ). After these measures have been taken, neurovascular status fine and patient still in severe pain, the nurse will check the last time patient was given analgesic, route ,dose, frequency and as such its effectiveness .This is to determine the need for another dose and if the dose need to be increase d. However, before administration, the order must be checked by two nurses, the six rights of medication administration observed and patient’s identity confirmed using two identifiers such as name and date of birth for safety. After administration, the nurse will re-assess patient for effectiveness (Perry et al, 2012). Following Claire’s fracture and surgical procedure, some of the post-operative complications she may experience include compartment syndrome, fat embolism, deep vein thrombosis, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, pressure sore, paralytic ileus, renal calculi, loss of appetite. This potential problems can be prevented by early ambulation which will help promote muscle tone, improve urinary and GIT, promote circulation to eliminate venous stasis and hasten wound healing (Mak et al, 2010). Additionally, problems associated with bony union and possible infection may occur. If adequate muscle and tissue coverage is not achieved following muscle and flap grafts, amputation may be needed (Mak et al, 2010). SCENARIO TWO Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a condition caused by the reflux of gastric contents into the oesophagus which aggravates symptoms and alters ones quality of life. This structural change produces heartburn and regurgitation. Reflux occurs when the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure is deficient or pressure in the stomach exceeds the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. This leads to reflux of acid, bile, pepsin and pancreatic enzymes thus resulting to an injury in the mucosal lining (Giorgi et al 2006). Peptic ulcer disease generally known as painful sore or ulcers is most commonly found in the proximal duodenum and also in the antrum of the stomach or lower oesophagus (Brown Edwards, 2012). Normally, water, electrolytes and water soluble substances like glucose pass freely through the mucosal barrier while acids and pepsin are denied entry. This defence mechanism can be altered in certain conditions allowing backflow of acid and pepsin. As hydrochloric acid or pepsin penetrates the mucosal barrier, the tissues are exposed to continue damage due to acid diffuses into the gastric wall. Ulcers may erode more deeply into the muscularis and then perforate the wall. As erosion invades the blood vessel wall, bleeding takes place (Brown Edwards, 2012). This peptic ulcer disease has various clinical manifestations. Pain is one of the symptoms patient is experiencing. Its nature is typically described as burning, gnawing, aching or hunger-like and is often felt in the epigastric region, sometimes radiating to the back mainly when the stomach is empty (WebMD,2014). The pain is usually relieved by eating or by ingestion of antacids. Other symptoms the patient may be presenting with are loose of appetite and weight loss, heartburn or regurgitation, vomiting. Chest pain or dysphagia, anaemia. As patient’s condition become more severe, there may be malaena .This occurs due to bleeding from perforated mucosal wall.Haematemesis may also result (Brown Edwards, 2012). Helicobacter pylori infection are amongst the most common cause of peptic ulcer disease which directly and indirectly weakens the protective mucosal lining of both the stomach and duodenum allowing easy access of acids to the sensitive areas. As this happens, the lining becomes irritated and wears off resulting to sore formation (Duggan Duggan, 2006). Other factors includes excessive intake of NSAIDS such as aspirin or ibuprofen,genetic,smoking,high consumption of alcohol and coffee, liver or lung diseases, starvation, stress and certain diets(Duggan Duggan,2006). Histamine 2 receptor blockers like ranitidine are indicated for a patient with peptic ulcer disease. These drugs act by inhibiting histamine binding to the receptors on the gastric parietal cells to reduce or stop secretion. Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole which stops the acid secreting enzymes functioning as proton pump, disabling them for a period of 24hours also provides effective pain relief and promotes rapid ulcer healing (Brown Edwards, 2012). Antacids also stimulate gastric mucosal defences thereby aiding in ulcer healing. Other mucosa agents that can be helpful include sucralfate, Bismuth compounds and prostaglandin analogs (Brown Edwards, 2012). Many disease conditions can present with symptoms found in peptic ulcer thus making its diagnosis difficult. However to avert this, certain diagnostic procedures such as gastroscopy and colonoscopy need to done and the nursing care of a patient undergoing these procedure shall be explained in this part of the paper. Firstly, the nurse will ensure that consent is obtained, explain procedure to the patient, informing the patient his role.Prepre patient’s bowel by checking when last patient eat or drink, ensuring patient is on nil by mouth for 8hours prior to surgery (Perry et al, 2012).Depending on physicians order, patient may be on clear fluid for 1 to two days pre- procedure and enema given the previous night to permit easy insertion and clear visualisation. Checks vital signs and assess oxygen saturation level to obtain baseline and to compare post-operatively. Provide patient with gown, carefully remove patient’s dentures and artificial prosthesis patient may have an d storing them in a safe place (Perry et al, 2012). After the procedure, vital signs should be monitored closely especially temperature as sudden rise in temperature may indicate perforation, patient’s level of consciousness must be assessed to determine his ability to comprehend and follow instructions. Flatus, abdominal discomfort, fever, rectal bleeding, chills, swallowing difficulty, malaena, haematemesis are common therefore should encourage patient to report if notice any (Brown Edwards, 2012).Assess patient bowel sound and swallowing reflexes and encourage to eat and drink when present. Normally patient’s are not allowed to drive or operate machinery 24hours following procedure, therefore nurse should ensure that patient is accompanied home by an identified driver (Perry et al, 2012,). In a case of rectal bleeding, the nurse will support patient to bed to ensure comfort. Check vital signs because any significant drop in blood pressure and sudden rise in heart rate may serve as a good indicator for severe blood loss. If noticed any deviation, patient appears weak and unstable, urgent fluid replacement with 0.9% normal saline must be given to replace fluid loss. Closely monitor his abdomen for tenderness and distension. If after all these measures his condition still remains the same, medical team must be alerted for further treatments (Craft et al, 2011) Putting in place the above nursing interventions will help alleviate pain and manage post op complications in patients. Nursing care considerations always need to be specifically befitting the patient’s condition and their current presenting problem. As in the above the care consideration for a patient with musculoskeletal problems is definitely different from the other patient with gastrointestinal system diseases.

george harrison Essay -- essays research papers

George Harold Harrison, the youngest Beatle, was born February 25, 1943. He had two brothers, Harold Jr. and Peter, and a sister, Louise. His mother, Louise, was a housewife, and his father, Harold, was a bus driver.George's initial interest in the guitar came about slowly. His mother remembers that she started finding paper covered in drawings of guitars among his school things. So, she bought George an old second hang guitar from one of his class mates for three pounds. George tried to teach himself to play, but his progresswas slow. He sometimes stayed up all night playing until his fingers bled. George attended Dovendale Primary School, two forms behind John Lennon, and then he attended Liverpool Institute, one form behind Paul McCartney. George and Paul took the same bus to school, and soon found they had music and guitars in common. George and his brother Peter had formed a Skiffle band, and because they were so young, they had to sneak out of the house to play their first engagement. Paul introduced the skinny and pimple-faced George to the Quarrymen, who was only 14 at the time. Not old enough to join the group, George hung around with the boys, and came to idolize John, doing everything he could to emulate him. George stood in the back of the room at all their shows with his guitar. A few times he filled in for the regular guitarist who didn't show up, and the boys were also welcomed in George's house by his mother to practice and for an occasional "jam buttie&...

Monday, August 19, 2019

Grapes Of Wrath Essay -- essays research papers fc

John Steinbeck uses symbolism to enrich his writing. Several of these symbols can be found in his book, The Grapes of Wrath. The Joad’s, a family from Oklahoma, are in search of a better life. They leave their home in journey to California because of the dust bowl. The symbols in the book are the dust, the turtle, names of people, and the grapes. These symbols give the reader an additional perspective of the book. Dust represents life and death. Dust makes a mess of things and leaves possessions under a mucky film. The farming in Oklahoma becomes difficult because the heavy winds uplift the soil and carry it great distances. Then the farmers are left with no soil to grow their crops. The Joad’s livelihood depends on the soil. If the soil is rich, then it will feed hundreds. But if the soil is dry, it destroys crops and causes famine. The dust covers Oklahoma and leaves the Joad family with no other choice, but to move. The Joad’s journey to California is as slow as a turtle. Heat in the desert, car problems, and the death of the grandparents make the journey long and painful. A turtle shelters himself by pulling his head, legs, and tail inside his shell. The Joad’s gather together as a family to comfort and shelter themselves. A turtle feels safe when it enters his shell and the Joad’s feel safe when they gather as a family. There is symbolic significance in the names of characters throughout The Grapes of Wrath. Tom, one of the main characters, is hitchhiking home when he stumbles upon a preacher by the name of Jim Casey. Jim baptized Tom, but now he is no longer preaching because he has found that everything is holy and man needs no preacher. His initials are J.C. which are the same as Jesus Christ. Jim shows similar characteristics to Jesus Christ. He sacrifices himself for Tom. Tom has caused a deputy to loose his suspect and is said to be under arrest, but Casey steps in and takes the blame. â€Å"It was me, alright† (p.364). Casey is taken by two deputies, but appears to be proud because he knows he has done the right thing. â€Å"Between his guards Casey sat proudly, his head up and the stringy muscles of his neck prominent† (p.364). He gives up his freedom so the Joad’s can accomplish their dreams as a family. Tom then meets Muley Graves, an old neighbor. Muley shows animal like characteristics and acts like a mule. Just like a mule, Muley is stubborn. ... ...ouldn’t share. â€Å"So Ruthie got mad an’ chased ‘em, an’ she fit one, an’ then she fit another, an’ then one big girl got up an’ licked her† (p.563). Although she appears to be strong in reality she is weak . Grapes are the fruit of the vine; something sweet. But in actuality for the Joad’s they are a disappointment. The Joad’s talk about them as being this wonderful fruit that will bring them a better life. They will pick the grapes and earn money. But as they stare at the open fields they realize that it is all just a dream. There are no grapes. They continuously think of the grapes as an escape from their depression. The grapes would be so fruitful that they would be able to bathe in the sweetness, but in their case it turns out completely different. Discussing the symbols of the dust, the turtle, the names, and the grapes makes the reader aware of another aspect of the story. The reader is able to realize just how well Steinbeck is able to bring his stories to life. As a reader you learn to appreciate his style of writing. Once you read his books you realize that he is not only a author, but an artist too. Bibliography the symbols in the Grapes of Wrath Word Count: 1716

Sunday, August 18, 2019

To His Coy Mistress Essay: Use of Sound -- His Coy Mistress Essays

Use of Sound in To His Coy Mistress At first glance, Andrew Marvel's poem "To His Coy Mistress" is a fairly typical carpe diem poem, in which the speaker tells his beloved that they should "seize the day" and have sex now instead of waiting until they are married. Today, the speaker's speech may seem sexist in its attitude toward women and irresponsible in its attitude toward the coy mistress (the speaker doesn't explain how he would seize the day if the woman became pregnant, for example). Still, if we look beyond the limited perspective of the speaker himself, we can see that Marvell is making a statement about how all of us (regardless of gender or involvement in relationships) should savor the pleasures of the moment. For the poet, there are two kinds of attitude toward the present: (1) activities in the present are judged by their impact on the future, and (2) there is no future state--all activities occur in the present and can only be enjoyed or evaluated by their impact at that moment. The mistress would like t o postpone sex (theoretically until she and the speaker are married). The speaker wants to consummate their physical relationship now. Each viewpoint has its reasons, and certainly the woman in the poem would stand to lose practically from premarital sex. Marvell, however, isn't suggesting that unbridled lust is preferable to moral or ethical restraint; sex is the subject matter, not the theme of the poem. Marvell's actual point here is that instead of dividing our lives or our values into mathematically neat but artificial categories of present and future, we should savor the unique experiences of each present moment; to convey this theme, the poet uses irre... ...g up and slowing down time, the speaker's irregularities of meter create a melody that substitutes the rough spondaic meter for the smoothly regular iambic tetrameter. By the time they have read (aloud) the entire poem, readers should be less concerned with the poem's overall moral (or amoral) philosophizing than with its musicality. Marvell, after all, is writing a poem, not a work of philosophy. His use and then subversion of conventional rhyme, rhythm, and meter, create a music that opposes both philosophy and anti-philosophy. Life, these irregularities remind us, exists in the here and now, not on the neatly divided clock or calendar. We cannot control the fact that life is followed by death, nor should we try to do so through fantasizing about the future, but we can control each moment that we are alive: each irregular, spontaneous, surprising moment.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Kargil War

Role of Media in Kargil Anshu Bhatia PGP2- 18012 Table of Contents Abstract2 Introduction3 Literature Review3 Discussion of the case5 Analysis and conclusion6 Bibliography7 Abstract This paper attempts at evaluating the role of media in the Kargil war, which broke out in the summer of 1999, at a time when the Indian media was equipped enough to set the media agenda as well as present the war at an unprecedented scale.As mortals, we have never seen the war situations Palestine, Kashmir, Iraq or Afghanistan but only can perceive the images seen through media reportings. Therefore, many of our perceptions are based on the realism as created by the media owners. Introduction The function of media through which they frame the news stories is called as Agenda-setting function of media. In the words of McCombs (2002), in a typical daily newspaper, over 75 percent of the potential news of the day is rejected and never transmitted to the audience (p. ). (Maxwell E. McCombs, 1993) Media (or th e press) has been said to inhere three basic roles, also called as the â€Å"three I's†. i. e. information, interpretation, and interest. (The Press – The press's many roles). The limitation of media capacity to enable its thorough surveillant function explains their selectivity. Also called as the ‘Gatekeeping theory’ in mass communications, this along with Agenda setting media theory is closely related to Theory of Framing, according to which , gatekeepers (or the edia), certain parts of an event/news are given more attention than the rest. This incomplete revelation can lead to biased opinions amongst different sections of the society, but all the three theories seem to have one point of parity- Media is empowered, has an agenda and transmits only that information which it wants to be channelized across to the public. Literature Review â€Å"Journalists will say that war is too important to be left to generals. Reporting of war is too important to be l eft to reporters.Soldiers need to get involved in this. † -Maj Gen Patrick Brady – 1990 (former Public Relations Chief of US Army) (HALI, 2000, August ) As opposed to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Kargil was the first war that witnessed an emerging technology driven media in the era of television. Indian media had experienced live war coverage and broadcast for the first time, and therefore exploited the opportunity to bring forth the war in front of the people as if it was being fought right in front of their naked eyes.With daily updates and minute detailing covered, it was also the first time for the Indian military when fearless correspondents and journalists , armed with their satellite artillery made sure they covered the Indian army’s every step towards victory to make us proud. It was rightly said after the First World War, is that â€Å"war not only creates a supply of news but a demand for it (Ajai K. Rai) .Media is definitely able to ‘sell war ’ to its consumers given that it’s targeting and coverage is able to engage its consumers, which are mostly geographically concentrated in areas related to war. Armed by legendary conflict stories with Pakistan since Partition, media enhanced the platform available during war to display Kargil at its best, with one side devoted to the coverage of acts of superordinate bravery on the patriotic Indian side, and Anti-Pakistan agenda to display an adequate palette of sellable war at Kargil. The essence of successful warfare is secrecy; the essence of successful journalism is publicity,† says the preface to the British Ministry of Defence (MoD's) instructions to Task-Force bound correspondents during the Falklands war. (Ajai K. Rai) Military on one side is a hierarchical, disciplined and a closed culture contrasting to the independent and blurred code of conduct inhering Media. The latter is believed to have vested interest with prior set of goals for the agenda setti ng.Also known as the Fourth Estate, Media acted as the Force Multiplier during the War of Kargil, where it not only helped built public awareness about the intriguing war but also played a crucial role in enhancing public morale by disseminating information about activities of the Military to their friends and families. Media, especially television media has always been debated to have shown the ‘real war’ that arguably been far away from ‘reality’.At times deviated from its root purpose of information dissemination, and masked by ‘entertainment mantras’, often the images and broadcast are televised in a manner to sensationalize the eyeballs of its viewers. During Kargil, Military on one side, was biased with the emerged Media perceptions of narrating ‘Masala-extrapolated-tales’ which according to them could harm their efforts at war. On the other hand, to set the right sellable agenda for the war, Media had to equip itself with th e right policy interventions allowed at the right war locations to make the coverage a successful live war show for its viewers.According to Bernard Cohen's conceptualization, â€Å"The press is significantly more than a purveyor of information and opinion. It may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about. † (The Press – The press's many roles) Informational dissemination role of media is always accompanied by Interpretation, often stirring public interest. It was during Kargil, that the main functional aspect of media as ‘agenda setting’ was argued in public discourses.Media in compliance with the Government played a pivotal role in determining role of media, route of communication vehicles and defined their agenda as ‘framers’ for the Kargil war’s narration to the public with immediate effect. Kargil saw the media as being harnessed as the mass channels for portraying the goodwill of the existing Vajpayee –NDA government as well as the justification of the war. Where on one side, the government made sure the agenda was rightly set to harness it for vote bank for the 13th Indian General Elections, held a few months after the KargilWar. Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s pivotal role as an anchor, a ‘de facto Head of State’ during the Kargil war helped the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) attain a majority reinstating him as Prime Minister. Media can play very important roles in War and peace making. On one hand, Media could forge bonds between conflicting nations but, Media under strict scrutiny by the Central government agencies was regulated to portray the implacability of the enemy nation at the war front with their anti-social strategies.Also, media was mobilized to gather the nation under the banner of national integrity to foster patriotism among civilians and enhance their involvement with the war, inclusive of their roles both as spectators as well as participants at war. Discussion of the case War reporters, during Kargil were portrayed as extraordinary individuals who risked their lives without any means of self defence to garner news for public information. It was observed that media reporters, Journalists, photographers and media personnel returning from Kargil LOC ceased to be mere observers but, eventually had become participants in war. It may be argued that Reporters employed operated upon a unanimously agreed agenda by print and television media, but at the same time it can also be said that they were ‘sole masters’ of decisions determining not only which news stories/or war fronts were covered in their narrations but also how were they framed for the public.Therefore, not only are the stories in media biased by society’s cultural, political and economic biases but also by individual preferences For television coverage, where Cost of news acquisition set out during Kargil by media owners was huge, the agenda setting process was impacted by their commercial considerations to a great extent. Much announced by the media to be telecasting ‘eye-witnessed real war news’, the images, video clips and narration can be debated that ‘Kargil news was never value free, form the individual reporter or media house’s point of view.The mere dilemma that whether a reporter’s news was free from his comments questions the epistemology of value-free information and its dissemination. The relationship between the Audiences and Media can be interestingly questioned on what the media perceives the Audiences desire to what the Audiences actually expect the media’s role to be. Kargil can be established as a benchmark for Indian media where, the public on one hand emanded maximum disclosure of the first televised war; on the other hand they understood the security deterrents that were attached to the sa me. The ‘Vietnam Syndrome’ till date reminds people that wars can be lost due to the total freedom and access provided to the media in their coverage of the war. (HALI, 2000, August ) The ‘right to know’ was not much demanded as a necessity by the masses given the fact that the war was being just and the national integrity and patriotic flavoured gains were much more than the price of death of Indian soldiers at the war front.Audiences expect the real war to be shown but at the same time, are also driven by their rationality to avoid extreme visuals of war casualties, involving both soldiers as well as civilians. To analyse the sheer brilliance of strategic operations by media analysts and planners during Kargil , one must take into account the efficient use of media to save India from the mangling received on the LOC as well as the snow capped peaks of Kargil.Indian media mobilized its resources as a response to the Kargil crisis and should be given credib ility for organizing programmes, handling syndication and conducting in-depth analysis and discussions on television as well as print about Kargil, helping to stir the right essence of Patriotism amongst Indians along with establishing the goodwill of Government support. The wide array of coverage was designed and channelled successfully to convince political as well as social diplomats worldwide that it was Pakistan who had caused many grievances to the Indian side.To dupe our own Indian masses, the Chanakyan principles of deceit and lies were fully utilized to their greatest advantage (Kapila, 2009) In order to support their campaign headstrong, one of the most communist decisions by the duality of Government and media was to act as a barricade by blocking Pakistani e-newspapers on the Internet, to ban PTV from the cable networks across the nation, minimize the causality broadcast of Indian soldiers but exaggerate the defeated (and dead) army of the enemy nation.Instead, internet was used a strategic weapon to market their content in such a designed way so as to strengthen the agenda setting and help spread the propaganda. An exclusive website called as www. vijayinkargil. com. Officially trained personnel to handle PR effectively controlled the content that went online, such that any truth about crafted claims regarding any victory or casualties could not be even verified. Amongst the crafted news due to the lip service of the Indian overnment along with media included falsehood spread by telecasting lies like Tiger hill,Mirage-2000 HUD displays with manipulated information on TV News Channel like BBC, CNN a and the likes. Masses were made to believe what they saw or interact with content prepared by media. In a way, it can be said that although media did not tell the masses what to think, they effectively filtered the unfavourable and designed new content such that the propaganda for Kargil success with Patriotic fervour could resonate with equal consisten cy across Indian, not only in india but worldwide. HALI, 2000, August ) The very process by which media gathered reports at source, packaged and disseminated to a wider audience was constrained by a an array of influences ranging from broadcasting protocols and standards, battlefield censorship by the Military, delusory and misleading information campaigns controlled by the central government propaganda. This created the famously known ‘Fog of war’ during the times of Kargil.Unfortunately, although Historians should occupy the front seat in drafting of information for Kargil, the ‘first cut prepared draft of history for Kargil’ prepared by the Media Journalists had so widely been discussed and consumed by the masses that it is due to this reason, that Historians had to and will continue to dislodge the contaminants that were reasons of causing the Fog of war. (Tasneem, 2011, March) Analysis and conclusion â€Å"Four hostile newspapers are more to be feared than a thousand bayonets† —Napoleon Media as a force multiplier adds tremendous impact to the war-inflicted nations.Managing people’s perceptions of the military as a dedicated, sacrificing and dutiful organization is mandatory for nay nation; especially this was followed during Kargil times. Therefore, the need to maintain close and code of confidence between media and the Military was a mandate. (Ajay K. Rai, 2004) Apart from the blood-shed and casualities, Kargil shall be remembered in history for highly successful diplomatic media campaign. One of the most effective ways in which this was demonstrated was the fashion in which the media was censored from critical warfronts (Kargil, Dras or Batalik sector) or from volatile surety information’s.Emotional and patriotic flavoured appeals were instrumented as catalysts by the government and military to mobilize the Media to the best of their media agenda. The revolution in information technology from radio as the media during Indo-Pakistani War of 1971to widespread digitization, enhanced channelled communication methodologies and airpower employment during the Kargil war, 1999, has become the journey through which appropriate lessons have been learnt and assimilated by the Military as well as the media to work hand-in hand for any crisis that occurs in the future.A joint engagement for study of security issues (posed by real time reporting by media personnel from the battlefield) was one of the significant post war actions that were taken up for mutual benefit. (Ajay K. Rai, 2004) Thus , best of technology and public relations management helped Kargil anchors manage the ‘ Media Spin’ effectively such that today, India as a diverse and integral nation would always utilize the power of Media both as a ‘ Force Multiplier’ to help root the Agenda setting as well as a ‘Weapon of War’.This has led to increased relevance and importance being laid down i n public discourses as well as central standards and protocols for masses to lay greater emphasis on the role of media in war. (HALI, 2000, August )Bibliography Ajai K. Rai, R. F. (n. d. ). Media at War: Issues and Limitations. http://www. idsa-india. org/an-dec-00-6. html . Ajay K. Rai, R. F. (2004). Military-Media Interface: Changing Paradigms New Challenges. IDSA . HALI, G. C. (2000, August ). The Role of Media in War. Defence Journal , http://www. defencejournal. com/2000/aug/role-media-war. htm. Kapila, D. S. (2009).THE ROLE OF INDIAN MEDIA IN PROXY WAR AND TERRORISM. IntelliBriefs . Maxwell E. McCombs, U. o. (1993). The Evolution of Agenda-Setting Research: Twenty-Five Years in the Marketplace of Ideas. Journal of Communicationn 43(2), Spring. 0021-9916/93 , 58-67. Tasneem. (2011, March). How media influenced Kargil. Merinews – Power to People , http://www. merinews. com/article/how-media-influenced-the-kargil-war/15844256. shtml. The Press – The press's many rol es. (n. d. ). Encyclopedia of the New American Nation , http://www. americanforeignrelations. com/O-W/The-Press-The-press-s-many-roles. html#b.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Erasmus-Praise of Folly Essay

Erasmus of Rotterdam (c. 1466-1536) is one of the supreme figures of the Renaissance humanist movement, which deserted Middle Ages pious nesses in support of a productive new image of the individual’s impending. Praise of Folly, scripted to engross his friend Sir Thomas More, is Erasmus’s famous work. Its incredible combination of flight of the imagination and spoof is recounted by a incarnation of Folly, appareled as a comedian, who fetes adolescence, happiness, crapulence and sexual aspiration, and goes on to berate human pretenses, mannerisms and debilities, to deride theologians and monks and to admire the ‘folly’ of simple Christian faithfulness. Erasmus’s humor, jousting and knowledge made the book an immediate accomplishment, but it also concerned what may have been sales- advancing criticism. He was apprehensive with the sleaze that had broadened all the way through the spiritual positions of organization. On the other hand, Erasmus believed that religious rebellion led openly to lawlessness; consequently he took the side of neither the Pope, nor the restructuring major, Martin Luther. Erasmus went for to intensify people into quizzical their poise in devout influence through his work as divergent to dialogue unswervingly next to the Romanists. As a result both parties, Luther and the Romanists, detested him. Spiritual influence: Erasmus wrote The Praise of Folly as a spoof in hopes that people would begin to query the Romanists’ spiritual influence. It is written from the viewpoint of Folly, a Greek goddess, who is appalled with the unawareness and pride of her believers. The goddess discriminates diverse classes along with her believers and discloses their mistakes. Erasmus insinuates that the faults of the followers which Folly remarks are those of the Romanists. One such group is that of the Scientists. They are criticized for conceiving that they are enhanced than all other individuals. They â€Å"teach that they alone are wise while the rest of mortal men flit about as shadows (Erasmus, The Praise of Folly, in Workbook, 67). † Erasmus is concerning to the forged propose that the Pope unaided has the capability to construe the Holy Christian Bible, as well as the insinuation that the Pope has a heavenly understanding that comes corresponding with his heading of workplace. Erasmus’ vision of the Pope and the Romanists is that they â€Å"know nothing in general, they profess to know all things in particular; though they are ignorant even of themselves, and on occasion do not see the ditch or the stone lying across their path, because many of them are blear eyed or absent minded; yet they proclaim that they perceive ideas, universals forms without matter, primary substances, quiddities, and ecceities; things so tenuous (Erasmus, The Praise of Folly, in Workbook, 67). † devoid of properly speaking out alongside the Pope, Erasmus entails that the Pope put on a frontage as an all-knowing, all-powerful mortal. Erasmus states here that the Pope has no true knowledge as to what God expects from his worshipers. He cannot believe that â€Å"these lucky scientists find people to believe them (Erasmus, The Praise of Folly, in Workbook, 67). † With this last account, he calls to the people of the church not to accept the whole thing that are told to them from dishonest power statistics. Erasmus assaults theologians through the voice of Folly when he says that they will not waste haste to proclaim heresy in order to â€Å"terrify any toward whom they are ill-disposed (Erasmus, The Praise of Folly, in Workbook, 67). † Erasmus does not accept the word of theologians as religious law, and therefore is not intimidated by their accusations of wickedness upon his surprised of influence. They are arrogant beings who overlook that they blunder as every human does. Their idea that they â€Å"already inhabit the third heaven they look down from† is proof that they have lost their humility in front of Christ (Erasmus, The Praise of Folly, in Workbook, 67). They have sheltered themselves with â€Å"scholastic definitions, arguments, corollaries, implicit and explicit propositions† and shaped resistance to any indulgence they may commend (Erasmus, The Praise of Folly, in Workbook, 67). To the Popes, Cardinals, and Bishops, Erasmus inquires why they believe that they have the information to respond any and all experiential doubtful nesses regarding human source and human fate. How is it that to blunder is human personality, but the Pope can direct a life devoid of intrude or responsibility? Is he not human being? These figures of spiritual influence are more apprehensive with their roles of ability than they are about their spiritual responsibilities. (Erasmus, The Praise of Folly, in Workbook, 71). Religious aspects: The most important premise found in Erasmus’ book considers with his thoughts toward belief and the Catholic Church. he inquiries the responsibility of the church leaders. What they are and what they should be. When Erasmus elaborates that Bishops don’t meet the requirements according to the role of work, compassionate, taking pains but care more about creasing in the income, it demonstrates that he wants revolutionize but not in a turbulent way. Erasmus thought that the Church could transform the industrialist in quest of Bishop into his suitable responsibility. Fundamentally the Church had turn out to be too concerned with wealth and control. The Churches role now had developed from stringently a spiritual meaning to an association that was accurately running the state and schooling. Erasmus also believes that the role of the Church leaders has been mislaid and that authority they now have has become dishonest. To a certain extent, it should go back to an establishment that mainly deals with the religious inspiring of the people. These ideas were believed to be carried out wordlessly and methodical inside the Church member of the aristocracy. as a substitute of a religious war between paragons, Erasmus required a tranquil amalgamated church serenely rehabilitated from inside. The alteration that is desirable would help concentrate on Erasmus’ predicament with the Churches misinterpretation of how spiritual observances should be accomplished. J. Huizinga details out that Erasmus is incapable to be pleased about the Churches workouts because of its succeeding domination it had in all fields of the social order. Connecting in well with the other writers aims that the Church demands to discontinue and re-examine its position in the general public. Erasmus’ thoughts were discarded in anticipation of the reorganization was over and the Counter-Reformation was in dangle. Erasmus considered scholasticism as the most caricature of the spiritual strength of mind; according to him this deterioration passe from the prehistoric Christological arguments, which induced the church to mislay its Christian church believing in personal conversion ease and turn out to be the fatality of word-splitting thinking, which climaxed in scholasticism. With the end there came out in the church that hypocritically pious which based uprightness on fine works and simple holiness, and on a observance underneath whose influence the Christian spirit was muffled. Alternatively committing itself to everlasting deliverance of mortals, scholasticism drove back the faithfully tending by its fine-spun unimportant conjectures and it’s over inquisitive conversation of impenetrable secrets. In Erasmus’ work, Mistress Folly addresses while admiring herself. â€Å"And to whom is it generally agreed life owes its beginning if not to me? For it certainly isn’t the spear of ‘mighty-fathered’ Pallas or the shield of ‘cloud-gathering’ Jupiter which fathers and propagates the human race†. She laughs at the Gods and denudes them of their abilities.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Applying the Systems Development Life Cycle Essay

Procedure In a short paper (approximately one page), summarize how the work you have done in the previous project assignments can be integrated into the SDLC. Submission To submit this assignment, please go to the Grade Book. In the column in the Grade Book for this particular assignment, a â€Å"submit† button is available. Click on this button to be directed to your Personal Workspace where you will be able to upload and then submit this assignment. Please make sure you are submitting the final version of the assignment. The submit feature will be unavailable after submitting the assignment. Please do not post this assignment as an attachment in the Forum*. It must be submitted through the submit feature in the Grade Book. For more detailed directions and assistance for submitting assignments, please utilize the â€Å"help† feature located in the left hand navigation bar. Once at the â€Å"help† screen, choose the â€Å"How do I submit an assignment in the Grade Book† link from the â€Å"Courses† section. *Some assignments require the sharing and/or peer review of written work. In these cases, your instructor may also require you to post your assignment in a public message (i.e., to the entire class) in the Forum. Evaluation This assignment is worth 75 points. This assignment will be evaluated on the following criteria: †¢Completeness — Addresses each step/component/element required by project assignments with no obvious omissions. †¢Timeliness — Completed within specified timeframe. †¢Synthesis — Applies and/or synthesizes course content, required readings, independent research, and original thought into project as appropriate. †¢Clarity and Concision — Project composition isstructured logically, focused, well organized, and flows well. Conveys ideas clearly and concisely. †¢Language Conventions — Project consistently employs conventional English spelling, grammar, punctuation, syntax, and paragraph construction. †¢Application of Technology — Demonstrates application of technology to the project that is realistic and appropriate for the selected professional context.